The capital was at Jabiyah in the Golan Heights. It ended in catastrophe for almost all the states concerned.A double blow fell on them. – All the World’s history, at your fingertips –. Their achievements will have an enduring impact on world history. Abstracted from Akkadian Language by John Heise. World War II signalled the end of the Ottoman dynasty. This was the achievement of king Sargon of Akkad, in Mesopotamia, in the late 3rd millennium BC. This is sponsored by the powerful Iranian nobility, which is increasingly hostile to the Roman power to the west. 644 - Uthman becomes the third Caliph. The period between 1500 and 1200 BCE was the high point of the Bronze-Age civilization in the Middle East. The Roman empire normally has the better of the fighting, and has launched two major invasions which have penetrated deep into the heartland of the Parthian empire. Subscribe to our newsletter to receive updates on new articles, lesson plans and special offers. It has brought two full-scale Arab-Israeli wars (the Six Days War in 1967 and the Yom Kippur War in 1973), plus several bloody disturbances on – and within – Israel’s borders. The Sumerians alloy these two metals together to make bronze, which they use in weapons and armour. Since then the Middle East has seen many upheavals, particularly in Mesopotamia and surrounding regions. Yemen is a modern day country that is located in the Middle East just south of the nation of Saudi Arabia. In less than two years, Alexander secured the Greek and Thracian borders and gathered an army of 50,000 men for the assault on Asia. Ottomans conquer Constantinople, effectively ending the fifteen-hundred-year-old Roman Empire. As winter came on, Alexander headed for Lycia, southern Anatolia, where he annexed all of the cities he went through. Eventually, the Medes came to rule an independent Median Empire, and the Persians were subject to them. The Muslim world is home to a flourishing, and highly sophisticated, cultural life. Also, Christianity has spread throughout the Middle East, under both the Romans and Persians; in the towns and cities of both empires it is probably the most popular faith. Following the overthrow of the Medes by the Persians, they would inherit the former's territories but would significantly expand it. The Kingdom of Lydia entered the historical record in 660 BC, when the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal demanded tribute from the Lydian king, "Gyges of Luddi." Croesus replied saying that the Persians would be slaves of the Lydians. 1501. See the entire history of the Middle East mapped out every year. The decades since 1914 have been ones of great change for the Middle East. The key to Sargon's victories was his coordination in the army movement, his ability to improvise tactics, his combined arms strategy, and his skill at siege warfare, as well as the keeping of intelligence always relying on heavy reconnaissance. Surrounded by huge walls, defenses erected by the Romans at the height of their power, and defended by armies of Germanic mercenaries, Constantinople ended up surviving as a city virtually besieged for the greater part of its life, its territories eventually restricted to the direct area of the city. However, after Naram-Sin, the dynasty went into decline and soon fell altogether. His drive toward secularism (which he s… ... Found by Osman, large territorial expansion in the Middle East, encompassing most of the Islamic world and even the European world. In 585 BC, probably through the mediation of the Babylonians, peace was established between Media and Lydia, and the Halys (Kizil) River was fixed as the boundary between the two kingdoms. At around this time, paper is first invented in China. This unity facilitated the spread of Christianity, and by the 5th century, the whole region was Christian. The Romans sent a delegation to ask for Persian withdrawal, noting the past defeats of the Parthians by the Romans as a warning. The Eurasian Steppe (aka "the Steppe"), a vast strip of grassland from Ukraine to Mongolia, straddles several major regions. The Europeans now control only a narrow strip of coast. However, eventually, these internal weaknesses caused the Parthian Empire to collapse and the Sassanid Dynasty rose. The Greek language remains the lingua franca throughout the region. Arab-Israeli hostility has dominated Middle Eastern politics. The impossible had happened, the power which had held sway in the known world had vanished. The History of the Hammam Egypt has now drifted under their political control, as have several small emirates on the Arabian coast. 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